What is pneumonia (overview)

Pneumonia is an infection that occur in human lungs. Pneumonia is caused when any microbes gets in contact with the lungs,this microbes may include bacteria,virus,etc. What happens during pneumonia

During pneumonia the microbes i.e bacteria, virus,etc. goes inside the lungs with the help of inhalaitating air and moves through the trachea and then the bronchus to reach the bronchioles where it comes in contact with alveoli (air sac). Where the tissue of alveoli starts inflamating, during inflammation the alveoli gets filled with fluid or pus and leads in the difficulty in breathing .


Causes of pneumonia:

Pneumonia can be caused by various infecting microbes which includes.
1. Bacterial pneumonia
– Mostly common cause of pneumonia is bacterial attack to the alveoli which is called as bacterial pneumonia. STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE bacteria is the most common one.
2. Viral pneumonia
– In this condition the virus gets inside the lungs through the respiratory tract to infect the alveoli.
Eg.- influenza(flu) , common cold(rhinovirus), etc.
3. Fungal pneumonia
– Fungi present in soil or in bird dropping can cause this fungal pneumonia. This type of pneumonia is mostly caused in people with weak immune response or with weak immune system. HISTOPLASMOSIS SPECIES is an example of fungi that cause fungal

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pneumonia. Diagnosis of pneumonia

Common diagnosis may include the following tests:

Chest X-ray
It helps to diagnosis the infection and locate the exact position of the infection.

Blood test
Blood test can be done to identify the type of organism that causing infection. However precise identification is not always possible.

Sputum test
A sample of fluid(sputum) is taken from the lungs after a deep cough to get the pinpoint of the infection.

Cough that produces mucus or phlegm (common symptom).

Chest pain during coughing as well as during breathing.

Shortness of breathing.


Fast breathing.

In case of older person the CT-scan may also include to diagnose the infection. Stages of pneumonia

Loss of appetite.

Treatment for pneumonia

  1. Antibiotics:

Antibiotics are the common medication that are used to treat the bacterial pneumonia Eg.- amoxicillin, Tetracyclines, Cephalosporins, Penicillins, etc.

  1. Antipyretic drug (Fever reducers)/analgesic drugs(pain reliever) :

Drugs like aspirin,ibuprefon (Advil, Motrin IB, etc.) and acetaminophen (Tylenol,Excedrin, etc.) is administered to the infected person to reduce the fever and body pain.

  1. Oxygen therapy: Oxygen therapy is given to the patient who cannot breath adequately by there own. Oxygen supplementation is given by nasal cannula or mechanical ventilation.

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